Sunday, 25 May 2014

SENTENCING SUBMISSION by USA as to Hector Xavier Monsegur - 1:11-cr-00666-LAP - Document 30

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     - v -             11 Cr. 666 (LAP)
  a/k/a “Sabu,”           :  
        Defendant.    :  
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United States Attorney for the
Southern District of New York
Attorney for the United States
of America
Assistant United States Attorney
- Of Counsel –
Case 1:11-cr-00666-LAP   Document 30   Filed 05/23/14   Page 1 of 20

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     - v -             11 Cr. 666 (LAP)
  a/k/a “Sabu,”           :  
        Defendant.    :  
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Preliminary Statement

The Government respectfully submits this memorandum in connection with the
sentencing of defendant Hector Xavier Monsegur, a/k/a “Sabu” (the “defendant” or
“Monsegur”), which is currently scheduled for May 27, 2014 at 11:00 a.m.  In its Presentence
Report (“PSR”), the United States Probation Office (“Probation”) correctly calculates that the
defendant’s United States Sentencing Guidelines (“U.S.S.G.” or “Guidelines”) range is 259 to
317 months’ imprisonment.  Probation recommends a sentence of time served.  As set forth in
more detail below, Monsegur was an extremely valuable and productive cooperator.  Assuming
that the defendant continues to comply with the terms of his cooperation agreement, and
commits no additional crimes before sentencing, the Government intends to move at sentencing,
pursuant to Section 5K1.1 of the United States Sentencing Guidelines (“Guidelines” or
“U.S.S.G.”) and Section 3553(e) of Title 18, United States Code, that the Court sentence the
defendant in light of the factors set forth in Section 5K1.1(a)(1)-(5) of the Guidelines, and
without regard to the otherwise applicable mandatory minimum sentence in this case.    
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Statement of Facts
I.   Monsegur’s Involvement with Anonymous, LulzSec, and Major Cyber Intrusions
Throughout 2011, hackers affiliated with the “Anonymous” movement targeted hundreds
of computer systems around the world, hacking, disabling and at times exfiltrating data from
those systems.  Victims included news media outlets, government agencies and contractors, and
private entities.  In approximately May 2011, Monsegur and five other members of Anonymous
formed Lulz Security, an elite hacking collective or “crew” commonly referred to as “LulzSec.”
Monsegur and the other core members of LulzSec typically worked as a team and had
complementary, specialized skills that enabled them to gain unauthorized access to computer
systems, damage and exploit those systems, and publicize their hacking activities.  This core
group, among whom only Monsegur was identified prior to the time Monsegur began
cooperating in the investigation, included:
  Monsegur, a/k/a “Sabu,” who served primarily as a “rooter,”  analyzing
code for vulnerabilities which could then be exploited;  
  “Kayla,” who specialized, among other things, in “social engineering” –
that is, manipulating others into divulging personal information such as login credentials;  
  “T-Flow,” who served as an organizer, analyzing information provided by
members of the group in order to direct other members what to do next;  
   “Topiary,” who  served from time to time as the public face of
Anonymous and LulzSec, giving interviews to media outlets and writing public communications
on LulzSec’s behalf;
   “Lulz” is shorthand for a common abbreviation used in Internet communications – LOL –
or “laughing out loud.”  As explained on LulzSec’s website,, the group’s unofficial
motto was “Laughing at your security since 2011.”
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  “AVUnit,” who provided computer infrastructure for the group such as
servers; and  
  “Pwnsauce,” who performed some of the same work as Monsegur and
Monsegur and many of these core LulzSec members were also part of another
Anonymous-affiliated group called Internet Feds which, like LulzSec, engaged in major criminal
computer hacking activity.  
Throughout 2011, Monsegur, through LulzSec and Internet Feds, engaged in several
major hacks into and thefts from the computer servers of United States and foreign corporations
and other entities  including the following:  
  HB Gary.  Monsegur directly participated in the hack of the computer
system of this internet security firm in response to the firm’s claim, through one of its
investigators, that it had identified the members of Anonymous.  This hack involved the theft of
emails and other company information.  
  Fox Television.  This hack resulted in the compromise of a database of
contestants of a reality TV show called “X-Factor.”  Monsegur downloaded data from Fox that
he was able to obtain through his co-conspirators’ unauthorized access to Fox’s computer
  Tribune Company.  A journalist provided his credentials to Internet Feds
in the hopes he would be invited into private chats.  Monsegur used the credentials to login to the
Tribune’s systems and confirmed that the credentials could be used to gain access to Tribune
Company’s entire system.
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  Monsegur was a direct participant in this hack, which resulted in
the compromise of PBS’s servers and the defacement of its website.  Monsegur helped identify a
vulnerability and then installed multiple “back doors” on PBS’s system – that is, he installed
programs that allowed others to later access the computer system.

  Monsegur was a direct participant in this hack, in
which the personal identification information of customers was stolen from Sony.
  Sony BMG sites in Belgium, Russia, and the Netherlands.  Monsegur
accessed and downloaded data from the Belgium and Netherlands sites, including the release
dates of records.  Monsegur passed information about a vulnerability for the Russian website to
other members of LulzSec for exploitation.
  Nintendo.  Monsegur participated in a hack into Nintendo’s computer
systems, pursuant to which files regarding the structure of Nintendo’s computer systems were
  Monsegur had knowledge of, and conducted research for, this
hack of the Senate’s website.
  Bethesda/Brink video game.  Monsegur helped hack into Bethesda’s
system, and downloaded information including a database containing personal identification
  Infragard/Unveillance.  Monsegur was a participant in a hack of an FBI
affiliate in Atlanta, which resulted in the theft of confidential information.  
   Following his arrest, Monsegur provided information that helped repair and remediate
this hack.
   Monsegur provided the FBI with information about the vulnerability, which allowed it to
be repaired or “patched.”
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In addition to Monsegur’s direct participation in the criminal hacking activity set forth
above, Monsegur had contemporaneous knowledge of other major criminal hacking activity by
his co-conspirators, including hacks into the computer servers of the Irish political party Fine
Gael; a U.S. online media outlet,   a foreign law firm,  ; and the Sony
Playstation Network.
In addition to the six “core” members identified above, several individuals were loosely
affiliated with Monsegur and LulzSec, including, significantly, Donncha O’Cearrbhail, a/k/a
“palladium,” and J eremy Hammond, a/k/a “Anarchaos.”  Hammond, the FBI’s number one
cybercriminal target at the time of his arrest in 2012, was a prolific and technically skilled hacker
who launched cyber attacks against scores of governmental institutions, law enforcement
organizations, and businesses during a nearly year-long rampage in which he broke into these
victims’ computer systems, stole data, defaced websites, destroyed files and published online the
sensitive personal and financial information of thousands of individuals – all with the object of
creating, in Hammond’s words, maximum “mayhem.”  
The hacks identified above constitute only a portion of the significant criminal computer
intrusions committed by Internet Feds, LulzSec, and their members, including Monsegur.  As the
examples make clear, Monsegur and his co-conspirators indiscriminately targeted government
agencies, private companies, and news media outlets.  In many instances, the harms inflicted on
these entities were significant, ranging from defacements of their websites to the exfiltration of
personal identification information of customers or employees of the entities; the costs associated
with repairing these attacks ran into the tens of millions of dollars.  Monsegur was a key
participant in these Anonymous hacking crews, providing his technical expertise to aid in many
of the hacking operations.    
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II.   The Complaint, Monsegur’s Guilty Plea and Subsequent Remand, and the
Guidelines Calculation
On or about J une 7, 2011, the FBI approached Monsegur in his home and questioned him
about his online activities.  Monsegur admitted his criminal conduct and immediately agreed to
cooperate with law enforcement.  That night, Monsegur reviewed his computer files with FBI
agents and provided actionable information to law enforcement.  The next morning, Monsegur
appeared in court on a criminal complaint charging him with credit card fraud and identity theft,
and was released on bail, whereupon he immediately continued his cooperation with the
Government, as described further below.  On or about August 15, 2011, Monsegur appeared
before Your Honor and entered a guilty plea pursuant to a cooperation agreement with the
Government.  Pursuant to the terms of that agreement, Monsegur pled guilty to a 12-count
Superseding Information, S1 11 Cr. 666, charging him with nine counts related to computer
hacking; one count related to credit card fraud; one count of conspiring to commit bank fraud;
and one count of aggravated identity theft.  In addition to resolving the charges brought against
him in the Southern District of New York, Monsegur’s guilty plea also resolved four cases filed
against him in other districts (including the Eastern and Central Districts of California, the
Northern District of Georgia, and the Eastern District of Virginia) which were transferred to the
Court under docket numbers 11 Cr. 693-696, respectively.
On or about May 24, 2012, the Government moved to revoke Monsegur’s bail because he
made unauthorized online postings.  Monsegur was arrested and remanded to custody the
following day.  He was released on a revised bail package on or about December 18, 2012, and
has remained at liberty since that date.  Accordingly, Monsegur has served approximately 7
months in prison in connection with this case.  
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In the PSR, Probation correctly calculates that the defendant’s base offense level is 7
pursuant to U.S.S.G. §2B1.1(a)(1) and correctly applies a 22-level enhancement in light of a loss
amount between $20 million and $50 million
; a 6-level enhancement given that the offense
involved more than 250 victims; a 2-level enhancement for sophisticated means; and a 4-level
enhancement given that the defendant was convicted of violating Title 18, United States Code,
Section 1030(a)(5)(A).  The defendant receives a three-level reduction for his acceptance of
responsibility, resulting in a total adjusted offense level of 38.  (PSR ¶¶ 43-59.)  The defendant
has zero criminal history points, and is therefore in Criminal History Category I.  (PSR ¶¶ 60-
Based on an offense level of 38 and a Criminal History Category of I, the defendant’s
advisory Guidelines Range is 235 to 293 months’ imprisonment.  (PSR ¶ 96.)  In addition, absent
the Court granting the Government’s motion pursuant to Title 18, United States Code, Section
3553(e), the defendant would face a mandatory consecutive term of two years’ imprisonment,
resulting in a total advisory Guidelines range of 259 to 317 months’ imprisonment.              
III.  Monsegur’s Cooperation
 Monsegur acknowledged his criminal conduct from the time he was first approached by
agents, before he was charged in this case.  Monsegur admitted both to prior criminal conduct
about which the Government had not developed evidence, as well as his role in both Internet
Feds and LulzSec.  Monsegur subsequently and timely provided crucial, detailed information
regarding computer intrusions committed by these groups, including how the attacks occurred,
   This loss figure includes damages caused not only by hacks in which Monsegur
personally and directly participated, but also damages from hacks perpetrated by Monsegur’s co-
conspirators in which he did not directly participate.  Monsegur’s actions personally and directly
caused between $1,000,000 and $2,500,000 in damages.  Had Monsegur not candidly
acknowledged his affiliation with the groups that committed the other hacks, his advisory
Guidelines range likely would have been substantially lower.  
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which members were involved, and how the computer systems were exploited once breached.
As set forth below, Monsegur’s consistent and corroborated historical information, coupled with
his substantial proactive cooperation and other evidence developed in the case, contributed
directly to the identification, prosecution and conviction of eight of his major co-conspirators,
including Hammond, who at the time of his arrest was the FBI’s number one cybercriminal
target in the world.  On top of that, Monsegur engaged in additional, substantial proactive
cooperation that enabled the FBI to prevent a substantial number of planned cyber attacks, as set
forth below.
A.   Monsegur’s Acceptance of Responsibility
To begin with, Monsegur immediately admitted his role in Internet Feds and LulzSec,
including his role in the major cyber intrusions set forth in the first section of this memorandum.
In addition, Monsegur admitted to playing a role in cyber attacks and intrusions with these
groups that the Government had not previously known that he played.  For example, Monsegur
admitted to participating in DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service)
 attacks against the computer
systems of PayPal, MasterCard, and Visa, among other targets.   Monsegur also admitted to
hacking certain government websites and taking government servers offline, to providing
“security research” (that is, publicizing vulnerabilities in computer systems that others could
exploit), and to using his “celebrity” hacker name – “Sabu” – in the hopes that it would inspire
others to join certain criminal activities of these groups.  
 In addition to his admission to these crimes, Monsegur admitted to engaging in hacking
activities about which the Government had not previously developed evidence.  According to
Monsegur, between 1999, when he first began hacking computers, and late 2003/early 2004,
   DDoS attacks involve the use of several computers to bombard a victim’s computer
system with connection requests, thereby overwhelming the victim’s system, often resulting in
the temporary shutdown of the victim’s website.  
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Monsegur hacked into thousands of computers.  For the next approximately two years, Monsegur
identified vulnerabilities in perhaps 200 computer systems in an effort to grow a legitimate
computer security firm.  Then, starting around 2006, Monsegur hacked into computer systems
for personal financial gain, or as part of hacker groups that broke into systems for a variety of
reasons, including so-called “hacktivism.”  Monsegur admitted that, before joining Anonymous
hacking crews, he hacked into a variety of websites and computer systems including the websites
of several businesses.  Through these hacks, Monsegur was able to steal credit card information,
and then sold the credit card numbers, gave them away to family members and friends, and used
them to pay his own bills.  On at least one occasion, Monsegur was hired to hack into a
business’s computer system.  He also successfully hacked into a business’s website and had
merchandise delivered to him free of charge.
Finally, Monsegur acknowledged a variety of other criminal conduct including sales and
attempted sales of small quantities of marijuana; personal marijuana use; illegally possessing an
unlicensed firearm; and purchasing stolen goods including electronics and jewelry.  
B.   Monsegur Assists Law Enforcement in Identifying and Locating LulzSec
Members and Affiliates
Monsegur’s primary substantial assistance came in the form of his cooperation against
significant cybercriminals affiliated with Anonymous, Internet Feds, and LulzSec.  He provided
detailed historical information about the activities of Anonymous, contributing greatly to law
enforcement’s understanding of how Anonymous operates.  Monsegur also provided crucial and
detailed information about the formation, organization, hierarchy and membership of these
hacking groups, as well as specific information about their planning and execution of many
major cyber attacks, including the specific roles of his co-conspirators in committing those
crimes.  He also provided historical information that helped resolve open investigations into
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several computer intrusions committed by members of Internet Feds and LulzSec, including the
hacks identified above.  
In addition to this crucial historical information, Monsegur proactively cooperated with
ongoing Government investigations.  Working sometimes literally around the clock, at the
direction of law enforcement, Monsegur engaged his co-conspirators in online chats that were
critical to confirming their identities and whereabouts.  During some of the online chats, at the
direction of law enforcement, Monsegur convinced LulzSec members to provide him digital
evidence of the hacking activities they claimed to have previously engaged in, such as logs
regarding particular criminal hacks.  When law enforcement later searched the computers of
particular LulzSec members, they discovered copies of the same electronic evidence on the
individuals’ computers.  In this way, the online nicknames of LulzSec members were definitively
linked to their true identities, providing powerful proof of their guilt.  Other times, at the
direction of law enforcement, Monsegur asked seemingly innocuous questions designed to elicit
information from his co-conspirators that, when coupled with other information obtained during
the investigation, could be used to pinpoint their exact locations and identities.  Monsegur’s
substantial proactive cooperation, as set forth more particularly below, contributed directly to the
identification, prosecution, and conviction of eight of his co-conspirators, including Hammond.
As disclosed in their communications, Hammond and certain other co-conspirators had
learned how to exploit a particular software application vulnerability that enabled him to hack
into many computer servers.  At law enforcement direction, Monsegur attempted to learn how
these targets were able to exploit this vulnerability, but was unsuccessful.  At the same time,
Monsegur was able to learn of many hacks, including hacks of foreign government computer
servers, committed by these targets and other hackers, enabling the Government to notify the
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victims, wherever feasible, so the victims could engage in remediation efforts and prevent further
damage or intrusions.  
Monsegur’s cooperation was complex and sophisticated, and the investigations in which
he participated required close and precise coordination with law enforcement officers in several
locations.  For instance, during the investigation of Hammond, Monsegur (who was then in New
York) engaged in online chats with Hammond (who was then in Chicago), while coordinating
with FBI agents in New York, physical surveillance teams deployed in Chicago, and an
electronic surveillance unit in Washington, D.C.      
Monsegur also engaged in a significant undercover operation in an existing investigation
through which, acting at the direction of law enforcement, Monsegur gathered evidence that
exposed a particular subject’s role in soliciting cyber attacks on a foreign government.  The
evidence he enabled the Government to obtain was extremely valuable, and the Government
could not otherwise have obtained it without his assistance.  Although this cooperation has not
resulted in any prosecutions to date, the Government believes his information, and the evidence
he helped to obtain in this matter, is extremely significant.  
C.   Monsegur Assists Law Enforcement in Preventing Hacks
Notably, during the period of his cooperation, Monsegur received communications from
hackers about vulnerabilities in computer systems, as well as computer hacks that were being
planned or carried out by them.  The FBI used this information, wherever feasible, to prevent or
mitigate harm that otherwise would have occurred.  The FBI estimates that it was able to disrupt
or prevent at least 300 separate computer hacks in this fashion.  The victims included divisions
of the United States Government such as the United States Armed Forces (specifically,
, the United States Congress, the United States Courts (specifically,  
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), and NASA; international intergovernmental organizations
(specifically,  ); and several private companies including a
television network ( ), a security firm ( ), a video game manufacturer
( ), and an electronics conglomerate ( ).  Although difficult to quantify, it is likely
that Monsegur’s actions prevented at least millions of dollars in loss to these victims.    
Monsegur also provided information about vulnerabilities in critical infrastructure,
including at a water utility for an American city, and a foreign energy company.  Law
enforcement used the information Monsegur provided to secure the water utility, and the
information about the energy company was shared with appropriate government personnel.  In
addition, when Anonymous claimed to have hacked the electrical grid in the United States,
Monsegur communicated with certain Anonymous members who revealed that the claims were a
hoax.  This saved the Government the substantial time and resources that otherwise would have
been deployed in responding to these bogus claims.    
I.   Applicable Law
  The United States Sentencing Guidelines still provide strong guidance to the Court
following United States v. Booker, 543 U.S. 220 (2005), and United States v. Crosby, 397 F.3d
103 (2d Cir. 2005).  As the Supreme Court stated, “a district court should begin all sentencing
proceedings by correctly calculating the applicable Guidelines range” — that “should be the
starting point and the initial benchmark.”  Gall v. United States, 128 S. Ct. 586, 596 (2007).  
  After that calculation, however, a sentencing judge must consider seven factors outlined
in Title 18, United States Code, Section 3553(a): “the nature and circumstances of the offense
and the history and characteristics of the defendant,” 18 U.S.C. § 3553(a)(1); the four legitimate
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purposes of sentencing, seeid. § 3553(a)(2); “the kinds of sentences available,” id. § 3553(a)(3);
the Guidelines range itself, seeid. § 3553(a)(4); any relevant policy statement by the Sentencing
Commission, seeid. § 3553(a)(5); “the need to avoid unwarranted sentence disparities among
defendants,” id. § 3553(a)(6); and “the need to provide restitution to any victims,” id. §
3553(a)(7).  See Gall, 128 S. Ct. at 596 & n.6.  
II.   Evaluation of Defendant’s Cooperation
Section 5K1.1 of the Guidelines sets forth five non-exclusive factors that sentencing
courts are encouraged to consider in determining the appropriate sentencing reduction for a
defendant who has rendered substantial assistance, including the significance and usefulness of
the assistance; the truthfulness, completeness and reliability of the defendant’s information and
testimony; the nature and extent of the assistance; any injury suffered, or any danger or risk of
injury to the defendant or his family resulting from his assistance; and the timeliness of the
As to the significance and usefulness of the defendant’s assistance, Monsegur’s
cooperation was extraordinarily valuable and productive.  Monsegur provided unprecedented
access to LulzSec – a tightly knit group of hackers who targeted and successfully breached a
variety of computer systems operated by governments, businesses, and news media outlets.
Through Monsegur’s historical information and substantial proactive cooperation, the FBI and
international law enforcement were able to pierce the secrecy surrounding the group, identify and
locate its core members, and successfully prosecute them.  In particular, when Monsegur first
was arrested, he provided the FBI with information about the identities and whereabouts of core
LulzSec members.  This information helped focus the investigations being conducted by the FBI
and international law enforcement, allowing them to develop additional evidence against
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LulzSec members.  At the direction of law enforcement, Monsegur then engaged in online chats
with various LulzSec members, convincing them to disclose details that confirmed their
identities and whereabouts including, as noted above, digital evidence that later was matched to
files stored on the LulzSec members’ computers.  Monsegur also provided in-depth information
regarding many of the computer hacks that LulzSec had perpetrated.  
Monsegur’s efforts contributed directly in the identification, prosecution, and convictions
of core members of LulzSec, including:
  Ryan Ackroyd, a/k/a “Kayla.”  Ackroyd was arrested by authorities in the
United Kingdom.  He pled guilty and was sentenced to 30 months’ imprisonment.
  J ake Davis, a/k/a “Topiary.”  Davis was arrested by authorities in the
United Kingdom.  He pled guilty and was sentenced to 24 months’ custody in a young offender
  Mustafa Al-Bassam, a/k/a “T-Flow.”  Al-Bassam was arrested by
authorities in the United Kingdom.  He pled guilty and was sentenced to a 20 month term, which
was suspended for two years, as well as 300 hours’ community service.
  Darren Martyn, a/k/a “pwnsauce,” was arrested by authorities in Ireland.
He subsequently pled guilty and received a sentence of probation and a fine.
In addition to these core members of LulzSec, Monsegur’s cooperation led to the arrest
and prosecution of others who contributed to LulzSec’s hacking efforts, including:
  J eremy Hammond, a/k/a “Anarchaos.”  As the Court is aware, Hammond,
the FBI’s most wanted cybercriminal in the world at the time of his arrest, was prosecuted in the
Southern District of New York, pled guilty, and was sentenced by the Court principally to a term
of imprisonment of 120 months.
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  Ryan Cleary.  Cleary was arrested by authorities in the United Kingdom.
He pled guilty and was sentenced to 32 months’ imprisonment.  
  Donncha O’Cearrbhail, a/k/a “palladium.”   O’Cearrbhail was arrested by
authorities in Ireland, pled guilty, and was sentenced to probation and a fine.
  Matthew Keys.  Keys is currently charged in the Eastern District of
California in connection with his role in permitting unauthorized access to the Tribune
Company’s computer systems.    
All of these prosecutions were extremely important to the Government.  As set forth
above, these hackers engaged in significant cyber attacks against computer systems that
belonged to government agencies and contractors, news media outlets, non-profit institutions,
and private entities.  Some of the attacks defaced news media websites, others rendered
government websites inaccessible, and still others resulted in the exfiltration of the personal
identification information of victims.  
Yet the number of prosecutions to which Monsegur contributed only partially conveys
the significance and utility of his cooperation.  On a daily basis throughout the summer of 2011,
Monsegur provided, in real time, information about then-ongoing computer hacks and
vulnerabilities in significant computer systems.  Through Monsegur’s cooperation, the FBI was
able to thwart or mitigate at least 300 separate hacks.  The amount of loss prevented by
Monsegur’s actions is difficult to fully quantify, but even a conservative estimate would yield a
loss prevention figure in the millions of dollars.  Moreover, Monsegur provided information
about actual and purported vulnerabilities in critical infrastructure, allowing law enforcement to
respond appropriately.  
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Finally, as set forth above, Monsegur engaged in a significant undercover operation in
which, acting at the direction of law enforcement, he helped to obtain evidence that exposed a
subject’s role in soliciting cyber attacks on the computer systems of a foreign government.  
While it has not resulted in prosecutions to date, this evidence is significant and valuable to the
As to Monsegur’s truthfulness, completeness and reliability, he presented as fully candid,
and admitted not only to crimes about which the Government had gathered evidence, but also
crimes about which the Government had not previously gathered evidence.  Monsegur’s
information was also consistently reliable and complete, corroborated by documents and
electronic files, as well as by statements from other witnesses.   As noted above, while Monsegur
made certain unauthorized online postings that resulted in the revocation of his bail and his
incarceration for several months, following his release from custody in December 2012,
Monsegur made no further unauthorized postings.  
As to the nature and extent of Monsegur’s cooperation, as noted above, Monsegur has
been cooperating with law enforcement for approximately three years.  His cooperation entailed
many multi-hour meetings with FBI agents that extended into the late evening and early morning
hours.  Monsegur provided substantial historical cooperation, as well as substantial proactive
cooperation, and he was prepared to testify if needed.  However, to date, every defendant against
whom Monsegur has cooperated has pled guilty with the exception of Keys, who is awaiting
trial.  Monsegur’s cooperation no doubt played a significant role in securing several of these
guilty pleas in that, among other things, acting at the direction of law enforcement, Monsegur
obtained incriminating online chats with most of the defendants that constituted strong proof of
each defendant’s guilt.  
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The nature of Monsegur’s cooperation was also somewhat atypical in that his work as a
cooperating witness was made public shortly after the arrest of the core LulzSec members.  This
revelation in itself served an important deterrent effect throughout the hacking community.  At
the same time, it resulted in significant scrutiny of Monsegur and his family members.    
As to the danger or risk associated with Monsegur’s cooperation, Monsegur faced
hardships because of his cooperation.  During the course of his cooperation, the threat to
Monsegur and his family became severe enough that the FBI relocated Monsegur and certain of
his family members.  Monsegur repeatedly was approached on the street and threatened or
menaced about his cooperation once it became publicly known.  Monsegur was also harassed by
individuals who incorrectly concluded that he participated in the Government’s prosecution of
the operators of the Silk Road website.  
Moreover, Monsegur has been vilified online by various groups affiliated with the
Anonymous movement, which particularly affected him given the central role that his online
activity played in his life prior to his cooperation with the Government.  Among other things,
certain groups have sought to release Monsegur’s personal identification information (such as his
exact address) as well as the personal identification information of certain of his family
Members of Monsegur’s family have been threatened because of his cooperation, and one
of those relatives was involved in a physical altercation regarding Monsegur’s cooperation.  
Monsegur’s family members have also repeatedly been approached by members of the media.  In
one instance, a reporter was removed from the school of the children for whom Monsegur served
as guardian after the reporter entered the school and attempted to interview the children.      
Case 1:11-cr-00666-LAP   Document 30   Filed 05/23/14   Page 18 of 20

As to the timeliness of Monsegur’s assistance, as noted above, he immediately
cooperated with law enforcement.  J ust hours after being approached by law enforcement, he was
back online cooperating proactively.  His timely decision to cooperate helped prevent or mitigate
hundreds of hacks; allowed the Government to develop sufficient evidence to charge multiple
individuals with serious computer crimes; and revealed a significant subject’s role in soliciting
cyber attacks against a foreign government.  Had Monsegur delayed his decision to cooperate,
his efforts would have been far less fruitful.  In fact, LulzSec had developed an action plan to
destroy evidence and disband if the group determined that any of its members had been arrested,
or were out of touch with the other group members for an extended period of time.  Accordingly,
had Monsegur delayed his decision to cooperate and remained offline for an extended period of
time, it is likely that much of the evidence regarding LulzSec’s activities would have been
destroyed, and members of the group would have become much more difficult to locate.
Monsegur’s immediate decision to cooperate was thus particularly important to the ultimate
successes that stemmed from his cooperation.                
In light of the foregoing facts, the Government respectfully requests that, pursuant to
Section 5K1.1 of the Guidelines, the Court grant the defendant a substantial downward departure
at sentencing.  In addition, the Government respectfully moves, pursuant to Title 18, Section
3553(e), for relief from the otherwise applicable mandatory minimum sentence in this case.
Such a sentence will appropriately account for the defendant’s extraordinary cooperation, and be
sufficient, but not greater than necessary, to serve the legitimate goals of sentencing.  
Case 1:11-cr-00666-LAP   Document 30   Filed 05/23/14   Page 19 of 20

Request to Seal
The Government respectfully requests that it be permitted to file limited portions of this
submission under seal to protect the identities of certain victims.  
Dated: New York, New York
  May 23, 2014

              Respectfully submitted,

              PREET BHARARA
              United States Attorney

             By:    /S/        
              J ames J . Pastore, J r.
              Assistant United States Attorney
              Tel.: (212) 637-2418
Case 1:11-cr-00666-LAP   Document 30   Filed 05/23/14   Page 20 of 20

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